Al-Aqsa Mosque, also is one of Islam's holy places, part of a complex of sacred buildings in the Old City of Jerusalem (East Jerusalem). Al-Aqsa is one of the historical heritage of Islamic civilization in the world. This mosque complex known to Muslims as Al-Haram ash-Sharif or "noble sanctuary. " Jews and Christians know as the Temple Mount. Al-Aqsa Mosque is considered as the third holy place of Muslims, entry in the series of events Isra'Mi'raj. The Book of Hadith explains that Muhammad taught Muslims oriented towards Al-Aqsa Mosque (Baitul Maqdis) until 17 months after moving to Medina. After that, change the direction to pray in the Kaaba to the present. Al-Aqsa Mosque in the holy book called the Qur’an in the events of Isra 'Mi'raj.
Al-Aqsa Mosque was originally a small house of worship founded by Umar bin Khattab, one of the Khulafah Rasyidin, then repaired the Umayyad Caliph Abdul Malik and completed by his son Al-Walid in 705 AD.After the earthquake in 746, the mosque was completely destroyed and rebuilt by the Abbasid caliph al-Mansur in 754, and discontinued by his successor al-Mahdi in 780. The next earthquake destroyed most of the Al-Aqsa in 1033 and repaired by the Caliph Ali Azh-Zahir Fatimiyyah to stand until now. In a variety of renovation, various Islamic Caliphate dynasties have made additional mosque and the surrounding region, such as the dome, facade, chancel, tower, and the interior of the building.
When the Crusaders conquered Jerusalem in 1099, they were using the mosque as a palace and churches, mosques function restored after Saladin recaptured the city. Renovation, repair, and further additions made centuries later by the leader of the Ayyubid, Mamluk, Ottoman, Islamic Supreme Council, and Jordan. Currently, the Old City of Jerusalem is under Israeli control, but the mosque was still under guardianship of Islamic waqf institutions Palestinian leadership.
The name al-Aqsa Mosque when translated means "the farthest mosque". The name is derived from information in the Qur'an in Surah Al-Isra 'verse 1. Ascension of the Prophet Muhammad is a journey undertaken from Mosque Al-Haram to Mosque al-Aqsa, and then ascended into heaven. In Sahih Bukhari explained in the course of the Prophet Muhammad riding the Al-Buraq. The term "farthest" in use in the context of the "farthest from Mecca". For centuries, the Al-Aqsa Mosque is in fact not only mosques, but also the area around the building, which is considered a sacred place. The name change occurred during the reign of the Ottoman empire (approximately the 16th century until early 1918). complex in the vicinity of the mosque called Al-Haram ash-Sharif, and building a mosque that was founded by Umar bin Khattab called Jami 'al-Aqsa or Al-Aqsa Mosque.