Minggu, 20 November 2011

Borobudur, Indonesia's cultural masterpiece

Borobudur is Culture heritage shaped temple, located in the Borobudur Village, District of Borobudur, Magelang regency, Central Java Province. Geographical environment of Borobudur Temple surrounded by Mount Merapi and Merbabu in the east, Mount Sindoro and Cleft in the north, and mountains Menoreh south, and is located between River Progo and the Elo. Borobudur temple is built upon a hill that has been modified, with a height of 265 above sea level. Borobudur Temple is one of the wonders of the world that exist in Indonesia. This temple is a Buddhist place of worship which was built during the Old Kingdom of Mataram, on syailendra dynasty.

Historian J.G. de Casparis in his dissertation argues that Borobudur is a place of worship. Based on the inscriptions Karangtengah and Kahulunan, Casparis estimate Borobudur founder of the dynasty was the king of Mataram dynasty named Samaratungga, who do construction around the year 824 AD The giant new building could be completed at the time of her daughter, Queen Pramudawardhani. Borobudur Development estimated take half a century.

Structure Borobudur Temple
  • Borobudur has the basic structure punden terraces, with a six-yard square, three round circular courtyard and a main stupa as a peak. Also scattered in all yard several stupas.
  • Plan Borobudur length 121.66 meters, 121.38 meters wide and height 35.40 meters
  • Building consist a nine terraces and a main stupa at its peak. Consists of 6 core and 3 core circle square
  • There are stairs at the four main directions with the main entrance to the east
  • Borobudur stones from the river in the vicinity of Borobudur with total volume of around 55,000 square meters (approximately two million pieces of stone)
History of discovery

Borobudur was discovered in 1814 when Sir Thomas Stanford Raffles, the British Governor-General in Indonesia, held activities in Semarang. Raffles obtain information in Kedu area have been found pictorial stone structure. He then sent Cornelius (a Dutchman) to clean it. This work was continued by the Resident Kedu named Hartman in 1835. In addition to cleaning activities, he also conducted research in particular towards the top of the stupa of Borobudur temple, but unfortunately on this research report was never published. Documentation in the form of picture building and temple reliefs made by Wilsen for 4 years since 1849, while the photo document created in 1873 by Van Kinsbergen. According to the legend, the Borobudur Temple was founded by architect ,Gunadharma, but historically has not been clearly established. Casparis opinion based on interpretation of the inscription with year number 824 AD and the inscriptions of Sri Kahulunan 842 AD, the founder of the Borobudur Temple is Smaratungga who ruled in 782-812 AD during the Syailendra dynasty. Borobudur was built to glorify the Mahayana Buddhism.

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